The Franks had always used pork fat in the same way southerners used olive oil. Various courses of medieval history are given in many Mexican university institutions. Jaime de Portugal, un fils de D. However, my discussion of ethnic identity see. Etudes for String Orchestra. Raga Piloo 5.
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With secure local pre-eminence, the evident ability to project this into the future, and some means by which partible inheritance could be circumvented, it is clear that. Whittaker Vol. Le Grand says this about the practice:.
This meant in effect that monks who otherwise avoided meat could use the fat from it to season their greens an idea already mentioned by Anthimus, who says that, from a health point of view, this was acceptable. At some point this was questioned, as Le Grand explains:. Even then, human nature being what it is, it may come as no surprise that even those who had other options took advantage of this indulgence.
As a result, we forbid any person whatsoever milk and butter during Lent, even in bread and vegetables; unless they have obtained a specific permission. But the fact that it ever was allowed demonstrates the vagaries of fasting in the medieval period. For centuries now, the association between fasting and fish has been a strong one.
Yet in earlier centuries there is no sign of this. Monastic rules only occasionally reference fish and then sometimes to limit its use. Note that Theodulf includes it in his list above of foods a man of "virtue" might avoid. Bernard's mention of quadrupeds means that fish was probably allowed to his monks; but nothing in the rule gives it a special status. But nothing in other documents echoes this. Two reasons for this come to mind.
One is that, when poultry was still an acceptable option for fasting, fish was probably a less attractive alternative. The other is that, until methods for preserving it improved, it simply was not practical to depend on fish in regions far from the sea or streams that provided it. Charlemagne kept fish pools and so had fish available on his estates.
De Villis includes fish among the Lenten foods to be sent to him. But it has no special place relative to legumes, greens or grains, or even cheese. Still, this is an early mention in France of fish specifically as a fast day option.
At some point, two things happened: eating birds on fast days became less acceptable and new preservation methods made it possible to transport fish across long distances. Very tentatively, this may be why fish suddenly became not just one fast day option, but the main one. Herring, which is absent from earlier mentions of fish, became common in France towards the end of the Middle Ages. In , for instance, Thibaut, Count of Blois, granted a half-thousand herring annually to the Hospital of Beaugency.
It gives the whereabouts of libraries with specific collections on the Middle Ages, a section of bibliographies on various topics, and a section with useful links sorted by topic. The peer reviewed journal publishes research papers in any Romance language and English.